2018 Street Rehabilitation
Improvement Project 18-1, 2018 Street Rehabilitation includes Service Dr, Thorndale Ave, Robin Ln, Robin Ct, Highview Dr, Pike Lake Dr, 12th St NW & 13th St NW.
The need to rehabilitate these streets is identified in the City’s Capital Improvement Plan for rehabilitation in 2018.
The project includes the following proposed improvements:
- Streets to be constructed to their original width.
- Remove and replace bituminous pavement.
- Replace broken or settled curb.
- Install and replace various storm sewers and catch basins.
- Replace various watermains, water services and hydrants.
- Replace gas mains and gas services.
All construction activities of this proposed improvement project will be done under a publicly bid contract by a private contractor. The City Engineering Department will administer the contract and provide the engineering services except for the preliminary soil engineering and material testing.
The City of New Brighton has jurisdiction over about 70 miles of streets. The majority of New Brighton’s streets were constructed during the period from about 1955 to about 1970 when New Brighton experienced its’ peak growth. The practical life of the street surfacing on the New Brighton streets has been found to be about 25 to 30 years. At this point, maintenance and repair is no longer adequate to sustain the street surfacing in an acceptable condition and street rehabilitation, consisting of the replacement of the street base and bituminous surfacing, and concrete curb repair is needed. The City of New Brighton began a street rehabilitation program in the early 1980s. Based on the practical street surface life of 25 to 30 years, the rehabilitation programs needs to be funded at a rate of about 2.3 miles per year, (70 total miles/30 year life = 2.3 miles per year).
For practical reasons streets rehabilitation is done on a neighborhood area basis with the actual annual mileage dependent upon the size of the neighborhood. Street rehabilitation should be seen as an on-going program for practical, financial and management purposes. Good streets equate to attractive, viable neighborhoods. Experience shows that a substantial amount of property reinvestment, such as new roofing, siding, driveways, etc. follows neighborhood street rehabilitation projects. Past and future programmed street rehabilitations are shown on the attached City map.
Six months or more prior to the rehabilitation of the streets in a neighborhood area the City staff holds one or more public meetings with property owners to discuss the proposed street rehabilitation project procedures, details, costs, and schedule. The meetings are beneficial to the City staff to learn about problem and concerns that may be correctable under the street rehabilitation, as well as to inform residents and build support for the project. The public meetings are normally well attended and most property owners want the project in spite of the costs and construction inconveniences.
The City’s long standing policy is to special assess 25 percent of the street rehabilitation cost.
As part of the rehabilitation of the streets in a neighborhood area, the City conducts a television inspection of all sanitary sewer mains and reviews all storm sewer and watermain records to find existing utility system problems and deficiencies so they can be repaired prior to the street rehabilitation. This include: repairing broken sanitary sewer tile, lowering or insulating water service lines that have a history of freezing, working with residents that may need to replace private sewer service lines, adding water system gate valves where needed and upsizing and upgrading storm water facilities. The City also works with the private utility companies, such as gas, electric, telephone, and cable television, to insure all utilities and facilities in the roadway, particularly under the road surfacing, are in top condition.
Financing Street Rehabilitation Projects
Street Surfacing is paid for by a combination of a city wide tax, and special assessments against benefiting property owners in the project area. According to the New Brighton Comprehensive Street Plan, 25% of the street surfacing and curb and gutter repair costs are to be paid for by special assessments. Utility system repairs are paid from the appropriate sanitary sewer, watermain or stormwater utility fund.
The City seeks permanent financing for street rehabilitation projects through the sale of General Obligation Improvement Bonds. The City needs to add 1.5 percent to the interest paid on the bonds for the assessment collections to cover the bond payments. Generally, the special assessments collection period is spread over a 10 years, which coincides with the bond payments.
The special assessment amount is typically around $2,000 per lot, which property owners can pre pay or collected over a period of time with their property taxes. Special assessments when they are collected with real estate taxes are repaid over a period of ten years with moderate interest charges.
Streets are seal coated every 5 years and then again at 13 years after their construction or reconstruction. Seal coating is considered maintenance and there is no direct charge or assessments against the property owners on the streets seal coated.Seal coating is a process of distributing bituminous oil, or liquid asphalt, on the street surface and then covering it with small rock chips. After the rock is been allowed to work into the oil, approximately 10 to 14 days, the excess rock is swept up and the seal coat provides the street a new water proof surface and uniform look. Prior to seal coating, the City cleans and fills pot holes and cracks, and thoroughly sweeps the streets. Consequently seal coating does not add strength to the street, therefore, it is not used on older streets that need other type of repair such as overlaying or total reconstruction.
The New Brighton City Council officially adopted a Comprehensive Street Plan on November 12, 1980. This plan was updated in 2008 and adopted as part of the 2008 Comprehensive Plan Technical Update. This plan is also an update to policies regarding the criteria for identifying needs and scheduling improvements as well as introducing upcoming improvement projects.
The street reconstruction recommendations in the original Comprehensive Street Improvement Plan report, approved by the City Council on March 8, 1977 were as follows:
- Criteria to be developed to determine what City streets should be reconstructed and when.
- Streets deemed in need of reconstruction to be routinely scheduled in 5 the Year Capital Improvement Plan.
- Storm sewer and other utilities to be included and/or renovated as necessary prior to reconstruction.
- Only barrier type concrete curb and gutter is to be installed.
- The cost of reconstruction to be no less than 25 percent special assessments with the remainder to be placed on general tax rolls. (The actual percentage to be based on benefit to adjoining property as determined from sample appraisal.)
- Assessment to me made on a modified front foot assessment method.
- Assessment to be payable over a 10 year period
Street reconstruction projects should be routinely scheduled through the 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan. Special assessments should be payable over a 10 year period and computed on the front foot method or the per lot equivalent assessment method. The front foot method refers to the method in which residents are assessed if the short side of their respective properties abuts the reconstructed street.
The following is a list of policies pertaining to the reconstruction of City streets.
*Policies for Street Reconstruction
1. Public streets shall be reconstructed when any of the following conditions exist.
- A permanent street which has been damaged or has deteriorated to the point where it cannot serve its intended purpose at a reasonable service level, and lesser repairs are not practical. Streets with proper maintenance generally have a service life of 30-years.
- A non-permanent street which has been damaged or deteriorated to the point where it cannot serve its intended purpose at a reasonable service level.
- Residents petition for street improvements with good drainage and pavement condition.
- An existing street poses a threat to the safety, health, and welfare of the general traveling public.
2. The Director and Superintendent of Public Works shall inspect all city streets annually. Public streets deemed in need of reconstruction shall be routinely scheduled in the 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan.
3. The City shall not continue to provide extraordinary maintenance on streets which are in need of reconstruction.
4. Storm sewer and other needed underground utility improvements shall be included as part of the reconstruction.
5. Only barrier type concrete curb and gutter shall be used.
6. The reconstruction cost shall be financed by special assessments and general taxes. Property appraisals shall be conducted in advance to insure the portion to be special assessed meets the “benefits test”. On state aid streets the City shall pay the over sizing costs from the municipal state aid funds.
- 75 percent of the reconstruction cost of permanent streets shall be funded by general tax, and 25 percent special assessed.
- 75 percent of the bituminous surfacing cost on non-permanent streets shall be funded by the general tax. 25 percent of the bituminous surfacing and 100 percent of the grading, base, curbing and storm sewer shall be special assessed.
7. Assessments shall be made on the front foot assessment method or the per lot method as determined by the Director of Public Works.
8. Assessments shall be generally payable over a 10 year period.
The recommendations on curb replacement in the original comprehensive street plan, which was approved by the City Council on March 8, 1977, are as follows:
- Criteria to be developed to identify when curbing should be replaced; however, replacements should not be made until the surfacing is in need of an overlay.
- Scheduling of curb replacement to be routinely handled in the 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan.
- All curb to be replaced with barrier type concrete curb.
- Concrete curb being replaced to be 25 percent special assessed and 75 percent paid from general taxes or the storm water utility fund.
- Bituminous curb being replaced to be 50 percent special assessed and 50 percent paid from general taxes or the storm water utility fund.
- Assessments to be based on a modified front foot method.
- Assessments to be payable over a 10 year period.
Curbing is important to carry drainage, protect the edge of the street from breakage and erosion, and to provide a guide for snow plowing. The City used to be predominantly S-512 (mountable) concrete curb and gutter, but now B-618 (barrier) curbing is used for replacement and construction to reduce lawn vandalism. Bituminous curbing is not permanent curbing and should not be used for replacement purposes. Since the previous comprehensive street plan, the City has repaired or reconstructed nearly all of the streets, and in accordance with that previous plan the new curbing has been B-618 (barrier). As such, bituminous curbs have become a thing of the past because of its non-permanent nature; however, there are some streets that have bituminous curbing. If a bituminous curb is to be replaced, then concrete curbing shall be the replacement option.
Curb replacement should also be considered if petitioned for by the affected property owners. It is always much easier to make an improvement if it has the support of the people who will be paying for a considerable portion of the cost. It is recommended that 25 percent of the cost be special assessed while 75 percent be funded through general taxes.
Curb replacement and bituminous overlaying should be annually scheduled in the 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan. One year prior to construction any sanitary sewer, water main, or storm sewer repairs or replacements should be made. It is not cost effective to replace or repair underground utilities after a road has been freshly overlaid because it would result in unnecessary road reconstruction.
The following is a list of policies pertaining to the reconstruction and replacement of City curbs.
* Policies for Curb Replacement
1. The curbing on public City streets shall be replaced when any of the following conditions exist.
- The existing condition of the curbing poses a threat to the safety, health or welfare of the public.
- The street is in need of a bituminous overlay and the existing curb has been damaged or deteriorated to the point where it does not adequately hold the boulevard, carry drainage, or when repairs are not economically feasible.
Considered for replacement when residents along a street with damaged curbing petition the City for improvements to be made to the damaged curb.
2. The Director and Superintendent of Public Works shall inspect all the curbing in the City annually. Curb deemed in need of replacement shall be routinely scheduled in the City’s 5 Year Capital Plan.
3. All curbing shall be replaced with barrier type concrete curbing.
4. The cost of curb replacement will be 25 percent special assessed with the remaining 75 percent to be paid through general taxes.
5. Assessments shall be made on the front foot assessment method or the per lot method as determined by the Director of Public Works.
6. Assessments shall be generally paid over a 10 year period.
The recommendations in the previous comprehensive street plan pertaining to bituminous street overlays are as follows:
- Criteria to be developed to identify when streets should be overlaid.
- Streets deemed in need of overlays to be scheduled in the 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan.
- No non-permanent streets are to be overlaid.
- The cost of the overlays to be up to 25 percent special assessment which is dependent upon the discretion of the City Council with the remainder to be paid through general taxes unless the overlay is deemed a maintenance project.
- Assessments to be computed on a modified front foot assessment method if the overlay is not considered a maintenance project.
- Any assessments to be payable over a 10 year period.
Over the years it has been implemented that City streets should be overlaid or seal coated on years 5, and 13 after a reconstruction took place. Depending on the severity of damage to a given street will determine whether or not a street needs a bituminous overlay, or simply a layer of seal coating. In most cases however, determination of a seal coat or overlay is done on an as needed basis. An overlay is generally used for the following purposes from which specific policies can be developed.
1. A 1.5-inch bituminous overlay can increase the design strength anywhere from 15 percent to 35 percent. (Core tests must be conducted to determine if additional design strength is adequate. Spot base correction may also be necessary.)
2. Along with a leveling course, a 1.5-inch bituminous overlay can restore crown to a street for optimum cross drainage. Good cross drainage helps to prevent water from seeping into the road base causing cracks more readily, weakening it, and jeopardizing the surface life. This, in turn, may lead to unsuspecting ice spots which pose a safety hazard.
3. An overlay seals off cracks and provides a new driving surface uniform in color and texture. A seal coat can do this for much less cost. (On highways, overlays are frequently used to improve skid resistance; not a typical problem of low speed residential streets.)
Consequently, roads that are cracking up as a result of traffic loading or a combination of traffic and insufficient surface thickness will benefit from a bituminous overlay. As mentioned earlier, traffic is generally not a factor in determining the expectant life of resident streets because of the low volumes. However, there is a minimum bituminous thickness necessary to just withstand the stresses and strains imposed by frost. The more frost susceptible the subsoil is, the greater the required thickness. If surface thickness is close to this minimum, even minor traffic will crack the surface.
All bituminous streets will develop cracks as they age and lose their flexibility. Thermo cracks, which are generally long straight cracks and are often perpendicular to the center line, are not indications of insufficient surface thickness or traffic damage. Thermo cracks are caused by the expansion and contraction of bituminous surfacing. Indications of weak surfacing are areas of map cracking or alligator cracking. In these areas the surfacing is flexed to the point that it breaks into small pieces creating a map or alligator skin pattern. If a street develops areas of alligator cracking which are isolated to small areas, it may be possible to remove the broken areas and patch them back with a thicker base. However, if major portions of the street develop map cracking, which are large pattern cracks, the entire surface should be overlaid before the surface deteriorates to an “alligatored” condition and is completely lost. Streets with a sunken crown should be overlaid to restore proper cross drainage.
The technique that is most commonly used for bituminous overlay is by wedge cutting the existing bituminous. This eliminates the problem of bituminous build up which can be problematic for street sweepers and potentially hazardous to pedestrians. Wedge cutting is done by a pavement milling machine that planes down a wedge shaped cross section of bituminous material off the pavement at the curb line. Then the new bituminous can be overlaid on top of the milled surface.
A problem that can occur with bituminous overlays is that which is referred to as “reflective cracking.” Reflective cracks are cracks in the old surfacing which comes through the new overlay usually within a year’s time. The types of cracks which reflect through are transverse thermo cracks. Consequently if a street has a lot of these types of cracks, a bituminous overlay will not have a nice appearance for very long., but the longevity of the street will be prolonged.
As a result of the reflective cracking problems, bituminous overlays are not always the best solution to a badly cracked street. This short coming must be considered in the policies for bituminous overlay. Reflective cracking seems to occur more frequently on collector streets than on local residential streets. This may be because the local streets have thinner surfacing and tend to develop many hairline cracks instead of the larger transverse thermo cracks. In addition reflective cracking is more serious on collector streets than local streets because traffic wears the cracks larger once they have formed.
Most of the overlays that are done in the City are considered to be maintenance type projects. As such, bituminous overlays do not necessarily need to be a part of the City’s 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan.
New Brighton’s collector streets are also the City’s municipal state aid roads; therefore, municipal state aid funds can be used for any improvements. Using municipal state aid funds could be the answer to keeping the amount of special assessments down when more extensive improvements are necessary to eliminate reflective cracking on these streets.
The following is a list of policies pertaining to bituminous overlays on City streets.
* Policies for Bituminous Street Overlays
1. The surfacing of permanent City streets shall be overlaid when any of the following conditions exist:
- The surfacing is developing extensive map cracking as a result of traffic loading or insufficient surface thickness and the pavement has not reached at least 30 years of service time.
- The surfacing lacks a proper crown for cross drainage and standing water causes problems.
- The existing curbing is in need of replacement and the surfacing would benefit form an overlay.
2. The Director and Superintendent of Public Works shall inspect all bituminous City streets annually. Bituminous overlays shall be worked into the City’s maintenance program.
3. The potential for serious reflective cracking shall be checked prior to construction of bituminous overlays and appropriate preventative measures taken wherever necessary.
4. The edge of the bituminous surfacing shall be “wedge cut” prior to overlaying to prevent a build up of bituminous material at the curb line.
5. The cost of overlays shall be 25 percent special assessment depending on the discretion of the City Council. The remainder will be paid through general taxes unless the overlay projects are considered to be maintenance projects where then 100 percent of the cost would be paid through general taxes.
6. Any assessments shall be based on the per lot method or as directed by the Director of Public Works.
7. Assessments shall be spread over a 10 year period.
Concrete street repair is an area of concern which should be addressed even though there are not many concrete roads in the City. There is approximately 1 mile of concrete streets which are located in the Poppyseed Drive and Lakebrook Drive area as well as a small stretch on Stinson Boulevard. The locations of these streets are on the appended city map.
The current concrete streets were reconstructed in 1983. The reconstruction and repair process differs from bituminous repair in that only the damaged concrete panels need to be replaced. Not all panels with cracks need to be replaced. A concrete panel with one crack poses no threat to performance of the road. It is the panels that have numerous cracks that should be replaced because they have a tendency to settle which in turn creates an irregular driving surface. A quick fix to this problem other than replacement of the panel is to fill the cracks with a bituminous material. Even though it creates an improved driving surface, it is not aesthetically appealing.
Broken concrete street panels are normally confined to certain areas of the street. This is more often than not a result of poor sub soils in these areas; however, when one panel breaks and settles, a greater stress is imposed on the adjacent panels causing them to break as well. This is another reason for why broken panels should be replaced. It is felt that concrete streets should be handled in the same fashion as overlays or bituminous streets. The two serve nearly identical purposes of protecting the street as well as restoring it to a uniform and attractive condition.
Although the broken panel may be localized to 2 or 3 areas of the street, all the properties on the street should be assessed. The cost of concrete street repair will probably be about the same as a bituminous overlay and should be assessed along with bituminous overlay projects at the same rate. Thus the cost breakdown for concrete street repair would be up to 25 percent special assessed depending on the decision of the City Council, and the remainder to be paid through general taxes. The policies for concrete street repair are similar to that of bituminous overlays.
The following is a list of policies pertaining to the repair of concrete streets.
* Policies for Concrete Street Repair
1. The concrete panels of permanent concrete City streets shall be repaired or replaced when the panels have severe multiple cracks and settled sections.
2. All concrete streets shall be inspected by the Director and Superintendent of Public Works annually. Concrete street repair shall be routinely scheduled in the City’s 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan.
3. Concrete panels shall be repaired by replacing the damaged ones with new poured concrete panels.
4. The cost of concrete street repair shall be up to 25 percent special assessment which is subject to the discretion of the City Council. The remainder shall be paid through general taxes.
5. Any assessments shall be based on the per lot method or as directed by the Director of Public Works.
6. Assessments shall be payable over a 10 year period.
Another area in which the City feels should be addressed in the Comprehensive Street Plan is curb repair. By curb repair it is meant when a section by section repair or replacement of curbing as opposed to complete replacement which has been which has been previously covered. Repair and/or replacement should occur when the curb section has severe cracks or when sections settle 2 or more inches.
Settled sections of concrete curbing do not affect the street life or pose any major safety problem (Sections which have settled 2 inches or so at a joint could pose a minor hazard to bicyclists or joggers though.). The main problem with settler curbing is the bad appearance it can give to an otherwise good City street. In many cases the settled sections hold water and dirt which cannot be picked up by the street sweeper.
In most instances the settled curbing is a result of sewer and water service trench settlements. This problem has virtually been eliminated on past projects by staging the curb construction one year after the utility installation. This time period would allow for any initial settlement. Another Major cause of settled and broken curbing is frost action. Frost action is particularly noticeable on curbing near catch basins.
The City feels that the appearance of our City streets is important and that badly settled and broken sections of concrete curbing should be repaired. The logical time to repair the curbing on a street is prior to a seal coat or bituminous overlay. It may be possible to raise some of the curb sections which are not broken, and if that is applicable it should be done. Curb sections that are badly damaged; however, would have to be replaced. We feel that the best way to handle replacement would be to do the removal and disposal with City forces, but contract out for the forming, placing, and finishing.
There is also an amount bituminous curbing in the City. The problem with bituminous curbing is the gouging and breaking of bituminous curb from snow plowing. Service trench settlement of bituminous curbing is not so much an issue as is concrete curbing. As a result the damage to bituminous curbing is not confined to short sections which can be replaced. Another problem with bituminous curbing is that it is rather difficult to patch a damaged bituminous curb in a good looking section. Therefore it s not generally recommended that bituminous curb be repaired. The damage caused by snowplowing should generally be considered normal wear, and the entire curb should be replaced with concrete curbing when the street is in need of an overlay or reconstruction. If the bituminous curbing is in good condition and short sections are extensively damaged by plowing, street excavations, etc., replacement should be done under regular street maintenance as it is now.
The following is a list of policies pertaining to City curb repair.
* Policies for Curb Repair
1. Badly broken and settled sections of concrete curbing on permanent streets shall be repaired or replaced on all streets scheduled to be overlaid or seal coated.
2. If the street is not scheduled to be overlaid or seal coated, curbing that is badly broken and settled sections shall be repaired or replaced only if funding is available and authorized by the Director of Public Works.
3. Curb sections which are only settled that can be corrected by raising and filling, will be repaired by the City maintenance department.
4. Curb sections which are badly cracked or settled and cannot be raised shall be removed by the City maintenance department and a contract let for the replacement work.
5. The curb repair work shall be funded as follows:
- On overlay or reconstruction projects, 25 percent of the cost of replacing curb sections shall be included with the overlay special assessment, but is subject to the discretion of the City Council. The remaining shall be funded through the general tax.
- All repair and replacement of concrete curb sections on seal coating projects or other maintenance projects shall be funded in the City streets department budget or storm water utility fund.
Public alleys require surface maintenance and periodic repairs just like streets and should be covered in this Comprehensive Street Plan.
There are just under 3 miles of public alleys in the City of New Brighton, and they have all been paved. The alleys west of Old Highway 8 were reconstructed in 2002, and the rest of the alleys are in generally good condition. We feel the permanent alleys should be patched and maintained by the City the same as permanent streets. Property owners who desire an improved alley should be required to petition for an alley improvement. The alley should be constructed 10 to 12 feet wide of form poured concrete with an inverted crown down to the center for drainage. Bituminous surfaced alleys could be considered where drainage does not pose a problem. Since alleys serve primarily a private purpose, the cost of alley improvements should 100 percent special assessed.
The following is a list of policies for the maintenance and reconstruction of public alleys.
* Policies for Public Alleys
1. Alleys shall be crack sealed and seal coated on the same schedule as street projects.
2. Public alleys shall be reconstructed when any of the following conditions exist.
- A permanent alley which has been damaged or has deteriorated to the point where it cannot serve its intended purpose at a reasonable service level, and lesser repairs are not practical. Alleys with proper maintenance generally have a service life of 30-years. Alleys will be considered for reconstruction at the same time when the adjoining streets are being considered.
- When petitioned for by the adjoining property owners.
3. Alley reconstruction projects shall be routinely scheduled through the 5 Year Capital Improvement Plan.
4. Alleys shall be reconstructed with 12 foot wide form poured concrete with an inverted crown to carry drainage down to the center. Bituminous surfacing could be considered where drainage is not a concern.
5. The reconstruction cost shall be financed by special assessments and general taxes. Property appraisals shall be conducted in advance to insure the portion to be special assessed meets the “benefits test”.
- 75 percent of the reconstruction cost of permanent alleys shall be funded by general tax, and 25 percent special assessed.
- 75 percent of the surfacing cost on non-permanent alleys shall be funded by the general tax. 25 percent of the surfacing and 100 percent of the grading, base, curbing and storm sewer shall be special assessed.
6. The assessments shall be made on the modified front foot method or per lot method which ever works out.
7. Assessments shall be made payable over a 10 year period.
The skeletal system sidewalk in the City of New Brighton has grown considerably in the past 27 years. In 1980 the City recorded around 8 miles of skeletal sidewalk. As of 2003 the sidewalk system spans just over 21 miles. Skeletal system sidewalks are those sidewalks which are built and maintained by the City. The City’s skeletal system of sidewalks is in generally good condition. There are, however, occasional replacements of settled panels which will be necessary for safety reasons. This would be done as part of regular maintenance.
Because of the high cost of construction and maintenance, additions to the skeletal sidewalk system should be well planned. Policies should be developed to define the purpose and extent of the skeletal sidewalk system. These policies should be used to identify needed future additions to the system along with Section 25-61 of the City Code.
As the name implies, the skeletal sidewalk system should extend throughout the City connecting major activity centers such as parks, schools, churches, and commercial establishments. The sidewalk should generally be located along collector streets or minor arterials which are better lit and provide safety through the higher level of activity. Pedestrian volumes and safety needs are generally not great enough to warrant the construction of sidewalks within residential neighborhoods.
The city should resist pressure to construct skeletal system sidewalks in locations which do not meet these policies. All skeletal system sidewalks should be designated by the City Council resolution. A map showing the existing skeletal sidewalk system along with a spreadsheet of lengths of sidewalk can be found in the back of this report. If residents desire a sidewalk along their street, they can petition the City Council. The City Code contains provisions for sidewalks not on the skeletal system which are the property owner’s responsibility. Consequently, a majority of the City’s skeletal sidewalk system runs along CountyState and Highway, as well as MunicipalState aid streets. This would imply that most of the expansion or repair of the sidewalk system may be funded through State aid.
In summary, the following is a list of policies pertaining to the construction and maintenance of the skeletal sidewalk system.
* Policies for Skeletal System Sidewalks
1. The City shall identify all sidewalks which shall be part of the skeletal sidewalk system by resolution. The City Council shall identify what side of the street the sidewalk will be constructed.
2. Addition to the skeletal system shall meet the following criteria:
- Skeletal sidewalks shall connect major activity centers such as schools, parks, churches, and commercial centers.
- Skeletal sidewalks shall be located along collector streets and minor arterials which are well lit, and provide personal security through the higher level of activity.
- The additions shall be designated to connect to the existing system and systems of other communities whenever possible.
- The criteria under Section 25-61 of the City Code.
3. Additions to the skeletal system shall be funded by municipal state aid funds. The sidewalk must be along a city or county state aid road in order for state aid funds to be used.
4. The City street department shall maintain the skeletal sidewalk system, and maintenance shall include but not be limited to the following:
- Clearing sidewalks of snow and large debris from storms.
- Clearing the sidewalk space of over hanging tree limbs.
- Replacement of settled panels which could pose a safety hazard as part of regular maintenance.
- Signing and striping of crosswalks.
The type of maintenance referred to in this section is the surface patching, crack filling, and seal coating programs (Bituminous overlay also is termed part of the maintenance program which was already covered.). These maintenance procedures should be included in the Comprehensive Street Plan because they directly affect the serviceability of the street as well as the surface life.
On a one time basis, maintenance is the cheapest approach to improving the serviceability of a street, as opposed to complete reconstruction which is the most expensive. On the other hand, if maintenance is extensive or is required on a continual basis, reconstruction, or something in between, such as an overlay may be more economical in the long run. A typical example is patching and seal coating a street several times, which really needed an overlay. In the long run the patching and seal coating is more expensive than the bituminous overlay which eventually has to be done anyway. This poor practice results in a waste of maintenance dollars and often a neglect of maintenance of good streets due to staffing limitations.
One of the main benefits of a Comprehensive Street Plan is that it will identify the most economical balance of maintenance and surface improvements to sustain our street systems. We presently can provide an adequate level of maintenance on all City streets with the City’s maintenance department. Provided, needed constructions, overlaying, curb replacement, etc., is to be done as needed, we should be able to continue to do so in the future.
In New Brighton the street maintenance has traditionally been funded 100 percent with general taxes. The surface patching and crack filling have been done with City forces, and the seal coating has been done by contract.
Street patching and crack filling begins in about April and runs through September, depending upon the weather conditions. Temporary repair and filling of potholes in early spring is not included as it is generally not permanent if done before the frost is out of the ground. Patching and crack filling is seasonal and labor intensive and part-time summer employees are used. This includes all preparatory work for seal coating and overlaying if any is scheduled. The patching is done with finely graded hot mix asphalt. In addition to patching broken out sections of surfacing, skin patching is performed to level up surface settlements particularly prior to seal coating. Liquid pour crack filler is also used occasionally on deep narrow cracks.
Seal coating is done by spraying bituminous oil on the street and covering it with a pea sized rock material. When the excess rock material is swept up, the seal coat forms a new waterproof surface with a nice uniform color and texture. The surface thickness is less than a quarter of an inch and adds no strength to the street. Consequently, if the street is cracked from traffic loading, the seal coat will only serve as a temporary measure. If the surface is cracked from weathering, thermo cycling, and general aging, the seal coat will be more permanent. A certain amount of disagreement exists as to the value of seal coating of highways; however, some of the concerns are not applicable to City streets. It is felt that the primary uses of seal coating should be sealing of small hair line cracks and restoring uniformity and good appearance to a patched and blotchy surface. The City should not be seal coating streets which are really in need of an overlay.
The following general maintenance policies shall apply for patching and seal coating City streets:
* General Maintenance Policies
1. The City Street Department shall provide a reasonable and proper amount of maintenance on all City streets with the following exceptions:
- Streets scheduled for reconstruction shall not be patched or seal coated.
- Streets in need of bituminous overlays shall be patched but not seal coated.
2. The City shall seal coat approximately 10-15 percent of its total mileage each year if criteria for seal coating is met.
3. Streets shall be seal coated for any of the following reasons:
- The street has extensive cracking and a seal coat would seal off moisture from entering the road base and further deterioration of the surface.
- A street surfacing is dry and oxidizing, and surface wear from traffic and weathering is becoming prevalent. A seal coat would rejuvenate the old surfacing and provide a new stable surface layer.
- A street is very blotchy from leveling surface settlements, patching, utility repair excavation, etc. A seal coat would provide a thin new surface layer with uniform color and texture.
4. The City Street Department shall do any preparatory work for seal coating. Seal coating shall be done by contract.
5. All patching and seal coating shall be funded through the street department annual budget, or other funds if appropriate.